Thursday, April 28, 2011

Lean of Peak vs. Rich of Peak Engine Leaning

The Question:
Should I run my aircraft’s piston engine Lean of Peak (LOP)?

My Thoughts:

If you have the equipment, training, and time to do so, as well as your aircraft and engine manufacturers’ approval, certainly.

If you are a new instrument pilot on your first solo flight into the weather (a very heavy workload);
If you have a carbureted engine with a single EGT probe that sometimes seems to work, you think;
If your aircraft POH states specifically “Lean of Peak Operations are not approved;”
If you have only the vaguest of ideas about Lean of Peak and are unaware of the potential hazards for running too lean;
If the terms “detonation” and “pre-ignition” have you wondering which language are they;
If you regularly forget to enrichen the mixture during descent from cruise;
Or if you are taking a very short flight in Southern California or the Northeast Corridor (complicated airspace) during a very busy time and leaning the engine is the least of your concerns;
Then NO. Do NOT run Lean of Peak. Seek guidance from your engine overhaul shop, your local A&P, the rental outfit’s management, and/or your friendly flight instructor.

If your aircraft has an EGT and CHT probe for each cylinder and they work;
If you understand the various EGT and CHT indications and the required pilot actions for each;
If you are familiar with the symptoms, causes, and fixes for pre-ignition and detonation;
If you have had training and remember it during Lean of Peak operations;
If you have aircraft and engine manufacturers’ data in which to calculate fuel flows for flight planning when LOP;
If when flying you have the time, energy, and workload management skills to use your checklist and manage the mixture for the phase of flight;
If you are willing to return to ROP operations when your time, energy, and/or workload increases to the point where managing once less thing is helpful;
And it is not a sin against your piloting prowess to use ROP as needed;
Then YES. Run Lean of Peak when your equipment allows and Rich of Peak when it does not. Still seek guidance from your engine overhaul shop, your local A&P, the rental outfit’s management, and/or your friendly flight instructor.

I’m a convert from never running Lean of Peak to running it in aircraft with equipment, manufacturer approval, and my workload inflight allows. If time, the aircraft, the POH, or my workload does not, I run Rich of Peak.

When it comes to a coin toss, remember the words of one mechanic from one of the top engine overhaul shops in the country: “We love Lean of Peak; it’s GREAT for business!”

The bottom line:
If you’re trying to make TBO, both Lycoming and Continental Technical Reps state:
“The Number One Rule to Making TBO is Fly Frequently*.”

* Frequently = 30 hours per month minimum. Check your engine’s warranty for the pro-rate.

Logging Ground Instruction

The Question:

Do I need to receive and/or log ground instruction? I completed a home study course.

My Thoughts:

Federal Aviation Regulations, specifically §61.105(a) (and others) states "must receive and log ground instruction..."

This is an FAA hot topic, where a few years ago they were trying to educate instructors about the requirement to log ground instruction. Now they are violating instructors who fail to log ground instruction.

Pilot Examiners may refuse to give a checkride if the pilot applicant does not have any logged ground instruction. They are entirely correct as the applicant does not meet the minimum requirements needed to apply for the checkride. If the instructor is a serial offender, the Examiner may decide to fail the pilot applicant (it's the student's responsibility as well as the instructor), and/or make a call to the FAA.

The home study course is excellent, but the instructor must still issue and correct a pre-solo written exam, the topics required by regulation, as well as educate the pilot undergoing instruction on any areas missed on the Knowledge Test (as required).

Monday, April 18, 2011

Laptop Mouse Recovery

The Question:

My laptop mouse doesn't move smoothly. What can I do?

My Thoughts:

Use Compressed air to blow away dirt and lint around the mouse.

If that doesn't work:

Check software drivers to see if something funky is installed or configured

Remove mouse and clean underneath (not for the faint of heart or non-computer repair tech - may require removal of keyboard)

Swap hard drive with a clean to see if problem is software or hardware

Remove and replace laptop (is it under warranty?)

Or.. the solution for all: Use USB mouse.

Hard Drive Data Recovery Guide

The Question:

My hard drive failed, I need to get the data off of it, and some place wants$1600 to recover my data. I can't hear the drive spin, so should I swap the platters out?

My Thoughts:

Ummm.... if you're going to do that level of repair, you *really* need to know what you are doing. $1600 may be a small price to pay for data recovery, if the information on the hard drive is worth more.

If the techs are just running a software program, you're getting fleeced.

If at any time in the following steps you can see the hard drive to grab data, grab the data and consider yourself lucky.

If you hear the hard drive spin up on applying power, test it on the computer system, then run software-level recoveries:
Run Spinrite
Try File Scavenger

If that doesn't work, try the following hardware level recoveries, attempting software level items after each step:
Store hard drive in freezer for a day or two and try powering on. if hard drive crashes again, but did work for a few minutes, restow in freezer and try again. You may need to have the drive on ice while pulling off data.

With hard drive powered off, at least for 5 minutes or so, drop hard drive on floor, then test (trying to loosen stuck head). Go up to dropping on concrete, but do not throw it, yet.

Anti-static mats required now: Swap controller cards with other hard drive (need identical model with same dash numbers as current dead drive)

If still no luck, and you really need the data, consider that $1600 well spent, or, if you don't have to have the data, then consider the following learning experience:

Have the secondary identical drive nearby, then replace old controller card on the old drive, and lightly throw the old drive on the floor. Pick it up and shake it, listening for any rattles. Attempt power on.

If still can't hear spinning, now you need the clean room for the platter swap, one at a time, performing software level recovery steps each time.

If still not successful, now you have a really cool business card holder.

Data Protection Guide Redux

The Question:

Why can't you get rid of a virus with your virus scanner? It is easy, I just clicked on delete and the file went away. Are you fear-mongering?

My Thoughts:

For easy viruses that your scanner caught, great, delete the file and restore from backup. If the computer is acting infected despite having a virus scanner, deleting the one file won't help you now. I respectfully disagree that getting rid of the nastier viruses has a simple solution. My writing was both responsive and hopefully, preventative. Sometimes people need a little bit of fear to get off their duffs and back up their data, spend the molah on a computer virus scanner (use recommendations here and from reputable computer support sites such as ZDNet and CNet, Tom's hardware, and a few thousand others, and if it is too good to be true, it probably is).

If it is a simple virus, sure, absolutely, a scanner can remove it. A good scanner would have prevented the infestation in the first place in most cases.

But. . . If there was an updated scanner installed and active and the system still got infected, it's most likely one of those viruses that has mutated (with the help of hackers of course) and now the end-user is going to spend a lot of time fighting it.

Have no virus scanner installed, and the viruses circulating now typically invite friends in, and those programs cause more damage and download even more friends and the cycle continues.

I'm not intending to insult anyone's intelligence here, as folks do not pay attention to things they don't think affect them, like computer viruses. This is normal. I dealt with another business owner today who had overheard portions of my dealing with the previous business. "Backup hard drive, virus scanner, what's that?"

One fellow, as his day job, wrote software. He had no clue or desire to know the details of keeping his home computer safe from his kid's exploration of the internet. He only wanted it to work. This too is normal and nothing to be ashamed of.

For the three folks I mentioned, I could not do their job nor would I want to. They can have it!I refuse to spend 3-6 days fighting with the machine to give up some data. But, I can get folks on the right track (backup data, scan, and block), and give them options for what could happen.

Option one is to spend 3-4 days fighting the software (or pay someone to do this), get the infestation cleaned, and end up with a compromised system that runs slow and things just didn't work quite right. A virus that has attacked the virus scanner, ad scanner, and so on, you could be pulling your hair out for days on end trying to get the thing fixed. Option one is where one gets to learn more about their computer than they ever wanted...
Option two is to reformat the hard disk, even cleaning out master boot record devices, or, if you don't feel like dealing with it, remove the hard drive and pop a new one in. Reinstall the operating system and, even with the hold times for MS and Adobe software activation, be up and running with a system in under four-five hours. And somehow, the system runs faster without the bloat of a year or two of a Windows Registry with lots of software installed and uninstalled, and for those that like the bittorret sites, a whole bunch of unneeded clutter missing. Add back the needed files and, in a considerably less amount of time than option one, be up and running.

Option three I didn't mention because those that know what they're doing already do it and those that don't aren't ready to try it. This option is where someone has a hard drive sitting in the wings ready to go, a Ghost image of the original drive.

Most of the folks I have dealt with in the last 22 years of computer support would rather be using the computer than fighting with it. That includes me now. If there are no backups and one wants their data saved, option one is one's only choice. If there are data backups, one can choose option one or two.

How valuable is your data? How valuable is your time?

Backing Up Data

The question:
A local small business with two computers, a laptop, and two home computers finally decided they were tired of losing their data every time the computers got slow, infected, or had a hardware failure thus asked what they should do to prevent losing their data.
My thoughts:

My questions to them: How much is your data worth? Second, how much is your time worth?

My data is worth somewhere above $600 million. I have images, over 100 books, lots of emails, and lots of correspondence. It's saved my posterior in a few lawsuits, a few clients' IRS audits, and about every six months when I lose yet another hard drive. No, none of the images contain a blue dress or any current or non-current political figures.

I keep a regular backup to an external 2 TB hard drive, on average once every two weeks. My email with attached documents can be restored from Gmail for 30 days, my books from the publisher, and images from the camera's data cards. When I'm actively creating titles, every save is automatically backed up to a SD card and the main hard drive. Occasionally I rotate the SD card with the one in my cell phone, so I'm never exposed to more than one week of data loss.

Once per month/six months/year, depending on what has happened, I make a DVD or an external HDD backup and hand carry it to an offsite location. This is out of state in a seismically stable area. Flood, hurricane, earthquake, tornado, riots, fires, blackout, surge, spike, brownout, mudslides, "leave your carry-ons and run", or whatever can still happen and I don't care, my data is safe.

My publisher has an automatic backup on each one of his computers and an automatic synch program where he can move between his work and home computer and still be working on the same file. He has a Mac thus the sync program works very well. He has zero tolerance for losing even an hour's worth of work. Further, as his area is subject to frequent thunderstorms, he has a UPS Backup Battery on each machine. The building can lose power and he can finish his thought, save everything, and do a controlled shutdown of the various electronics.

I advised, and the small business adopted, a daily backup program. Once per month they make a backup of the backup, so at most they could lose one month of easily reproduced data. Most of their work is conducted through a Virtual Private Network to a big company that has their own servers, support team, and so on. All the small business would lose is the occasional business letter that they could reproduce from their clients.

However, one of the business' employees is a grandmother. All her cameras are digital. She now keeps a daily backup that rotates and burns to DVD all of her grandchildren pictures and the scanned copies of their artwork. You can not recreate the first smile, the spontaneous wave, the embarrassing picture you'll show at their graduation, Senate confirmation hearing, or the prom pictures.

It is usually faster to start over than it is to attempt to clean up after a virus attack. The viruses I get, I try to capture an infected file to send to the anti-virus companies for them to develop an antidote. Then, I wipe everything and start over.

Now that we have the backups taken care of, it's time for preventative maintenance.

One needs a virus scanner, advertising/spyware scanner, and either a software or hardware firewall.

Again, how much is your data and time worth? If you do online banking, you need all three items. If you just surf the internet for free porn, all three would be nice, but don't expect any sort of data privacy on that computer. If the family shares a computer, you need all three and the backup programs, plus keep an eye on your credit history and the junk mail received.

Virus protection: MacAfee used to be good, now it just slows down the computer, same with Norton's consumer products. I happen to like the Corporate Symantec combined with several other measures. It doesn't slow me down and I don't visit risky websites, click on links or popups, or open every email attachment or email. I know that even with the top-of-the-line virus scanner, infections still happen, thus my backup schedule. Unfortunately, that's no longer the case so it is Trend Micro for me. Norton and Trend Micro have been most responsive when our computers have caught a "new" bug, four times in the past three years. Trend Micro offers a free online scanner, but if you think you're infected, it's too late for the free or online stuff.

Spyware: I use two programs; Ad-Aware and Spybot are the current top-of-the-heap. Both are free for personal use. Spybot runs constantly, until it slows down the computer, then it is turned off. Ad-Aware runs about once per month, when I want it to, not automatically. Even then, there are a few programs such as CoolWebSearch that are a pain to get rid of, so much so that one is usually better off formatting and restoring. One needs two anti-spyware programs as so many junk programs are created every single day; one program can't catch it all.

Firewall: If you are serious about protecting your computer, you need a hardware firewall. The cheap consumer grade stuff is exactly that, cheap. It will not protect against a determined hacker. A firewall from Cisco (not Linksys), possibly built into a router or node, will do just fine. If you want serious protection, you need serious hardware, set up by serious professionals, and maintained.

For the rest of us that don't have pictures of blue dresses with standing politicians, a software firewall is fine. ZoneAlarm is still an industry standard, and, perhaps most importantly, free. It protects against many potential attacks by hiding one's ports. See for more information on computer security.

BTW, any wireless network is hackable. For that matter, so are most wired networks. If one is connected to the internet, one is vulnerable. The recipe for Coca-Cola does not reside on a computer that is connected to the internet, if it is computerized at all. All the US gov't needs to do is suspect something and they can tap into your telecommunications systems.

But, there is good news. As pilots, most of us don't have any finances or assets to protect. A hacker would be seriously laughed out of the bank if they tried to open a large line of credit in most of our names. However, your credit history can be negatively affected by purchases at certain establishments, at least for another year or two.

As generic human beings, we are so boring, the tabloids are not interested in our garbage, let alone our emails, up until the point we land an airliner in the Hudson River. So, keep your emails, website, facebook et. all, and other postings professional. Minimize use of L33t or other infantile languages, unless you are a teenager raging against the establishment, whatever that establishment might be, but recognize that those records may be opened to public airing some day. If you've already posted pics of being drunk during a frat party, remove and delete them. If it was on the first day back from Iraq or other war-ravaged territory, thank you for your service, but remove the party pics from the public sites.

So now we have our data backed up and are reasonably safe from hacking, but now you have an old hard drive disk full of drunken frat party pictures, porn, viruses, financial data, and so on, and you need to delete the data before you propose to your intended. How do you delete the data?

Simply hitting delete and them emptying the Recycle Bin doesn't delete the files.
A software "file shredder" doesn't delete the files.
Writing over the hard drive with zeros, several times, does a pretty good job, but some information can still be recovered.
A sledgehammer does a better job, but some data can still be salvaged.

If the information absolutely, positively, has to be destroyed, one needs a deep pit BBQ or the equivalent. Don't cook any food over this fire. If the pit is deep and hot enough, rocks can explode, thus one might not want this in their backyard, near people, or within a stone's explosion radius of something important. The hard drive platters must be melted down. There are companies that will do this, a serious search online should find them. Be careful, though, there are some regulations that require storage of certain data types indefinitely, plus one should follow their lawyer's advice if in receipt of a subpoena.

There you have it, backup, backup again, and backup. Use a virus and spyware scanner. Remember one is not 100% secure and never will be, thus keep your guard up.

The above advice is worth what you paid for it and generic in nature. Consult your lawyer, minister, rabbi, astrologer, friendly computer technician, dark tech, 12 year-old, boss, IT team, CIO, CTO, FSM™, or Magic Eight Ball™ for advice for your specific situation.

Sunday, April 17, 2011

Visual Clues for Landing

The Question: 

Where do I look during landing? I seem to be fixated on the end of the runway, but it's not working.

My Thoughts:

Fixation, unless deliberate, comes from stress, which is a natural response to “OMG here comes the runway!” I did it as a student pilot, too. It took me many years of teaching landings before I figured out the below and no longer stress about landings, not even from experienced pilots who are making a once-in-a-lifetime mistake (if the mistake is caught early enough and properly corrected ;). Remember, it’s the stress that causes fixation and freezing. Lower the stress by knowing the proper cues and with practice, the freezing and fixation will alleviate.

When landing, experienced pilots are looking out the front window, even in Cessna 172s where the nose covers the horizon, but, they are only marginally paying attention to what is out the nose, the focus point about 6-10 car-lengths down the runway/horizon.

Experienced pilots are gaining their clues out of their peripheral vision and asking themselves:
Are the sides of the runway spreading out or getting closer?
Are the sides rotating or staying mostly straight?
Is one side getting closer than the other?

If the runway sides are moving, then the meaning is:
Spreading out: Getting lower
Closing in: Getting higher
Rotating: Aircraft is yawing and not aligned parallel to the pavement
Mostly straight: Aircraft path parallel with the pavement
One side getting closer: Drifting

With those cues, the pilot can then take appropriate action to correct if needed.

Leaving a touch of power on slows down the entire landing process. The aircraft remains in trim, thus no sudden heave-ho back on the yoke. There’s more time in the round-out, the float, and the flare. Each step becomes distinct, allowing the pilot to spend some time practicing each portion. Greasers become possible. Sure, one needs to practice power-off landings, just like no flap landings and other emergencies, but, when finessing the landing or getting back up to speed, leave a little power on.

Airspeed control in the pattern is important as well. It’s not so much that 5 knots really make that much of a difference as it is pilots who keep control of their airspeed have to be flying in trim. If one is trimmed on final, and trims during the roundout, flaring becomes that much easier.

For consistent landings, I spend a lot of time teaching go-arounds, with a little maneuver I call “scaring the runway.” We will fly progressively lower over the runway, sometimes with the pilot trainee handling only one control, such as power or rudder, while I control the others. Maybe we need to fly at ten feet and practice just tracking the centerline. Perhaps we need to work on the roundout, thus we’ll fly at lower and lower altitudes until just about to touch, then I’ll add some power which will balloon us up (lower the nose!), and reduce, back on down. Sometimes we’ll touch so gently the pilot will not notice we’ve actually touched, that’s fine, there’s no relaxing until clear of the runway at a full stop reaching for the after landing checklist.

Thoughts anyone?


Article at CFI-To-CFI

Flight Instructor Praise

The Question:

How often do you praise a student? I was once so frustrated with my performance I was in tears and ready to quit flying. Should I find another instructor?

My Thoughts:

It depends on the student. Some need lots of praise, others, they don't want to hear it until they've mastered a task. I find the carrot works much better than the stick.

If you start with another instructor, expect to have to repeat many maneuvers and re-learn the pattern to the new instructor's desires. You might solo faster with the current instructor. But, if the relationship doesn't work out, where you don't trust your current instructor, or he doesn't communicate the corrections and how to implement, it's time to find another instructor.

Don't worry about tears, I guess it's part of being female. My best "show" ever (*SIGH* I wish the tears would go away and stay away), was when the examiner told me I'd passed the CFI checkride, on the first try.

"WHY ARE YOU CRYING?" he asked, incredulously.
"I'm so happy," I bawled.

Learning to fly is a skill. It takes practice. Right now you are probably consciously incompetent of the landings not being consistently good, therefore you know you're not good at it. You are probably unconsciously competent in many areas, like preflighting the plane. You do it and do it well, but haven't noticed that you do it well and probably would have a hard time explaining it to others (consciously competent). Each skill builds on the other, like landings come from go-arounds, rectangular courses, descents, climbs, rudder coordination, crosswind tracking skills, slow flight, approaches to stalls, and so on.

I mention the conscious and unconscious competency to point out that some folks don't give themselves enough credit for the things they do right. Some folks will also negate anything positive said to them. Learning to accept that a flight will never be perfect is a big step in the flight training process for them. All straight and level is, is a series of climbs, descents, and turns, always trying to get back on course efficiently (no 90 degree heading change corrections when a 5 degree correction will do).

I once did a flight with an overly critical client. He was insistent that he'd never meet the PTS standard because of all of his mistakes. We were close to the checkride, so I had very little to say on the flight, and I briefed the flight as a practice checkride to excuse my "constant scribbling" during the flight. All I did during the flight, except for one reminder to contact ATC, was to write down what the client did right. His making a mistake was not important, his catching that he'd made a mistake and correcting it was. His being off heading by 5 degrees was not a big deal, his using the proper process of a one wingtip low turn to get back on heading was. Turning late on course was no problem, realizing the late turn and making a steeper turn that usual to get back on course was the proper reaction.

The debrief for that flight was astounding. I generally use the sandwich technique for debriefs, lots of good stuff and progress noted, a item or two that needs more practice, and finishes with lots more good stuff and progress noted. The critique part is always done in private. If I don't have a private office in which to discuss this, we stay in the airplane until it's done, praise in public, critique in private. I also spend time to ensure the client understands that I am only critiquing performance, which has very little to do, if any, with the person. I've worked with many pilots that thought if they made a mistake, they were a terrible person.

Anyways, here we are in the airplane at the end of the flight. The client is visibly upset, quite stressed at how much writing I was doing. I couldn't sign him off for the checkride yet because he wasn't quite able to meet the PTS under the stress he caused himself during the flight, a fairly advanced case of checkrideitis, otherwise known as test anxiety. He was speechless when I showed him my notes, three pages of proper and correct actions he had taken. Not only did it change his perspective on his flying, it changed his life for the better. He passed his checkride soon afterwards.

Another part of instructing that I've learned is to always make the training flight a success. I seem to get a constant stream of certificate or rating finish-ups. Many times the client hasn't even heard of the PTS, let alone know the contents of the introduction or any of the standards. All they know is that they can't solo, or can't get the checkride signoff. Also, not knowing the standards, pilots think they have to be perfect, when in reality the standards are very generous. While the PTS is the goal of flight training, it may not be the goal for that particular lesson. I've encountered pilots that were terrified of stalls. I used to be terrified myself. It usually turns out that one of their instructors previously was also terrified of stalls so passed that fear on to their student. Or, perhaps the student did some self-study and didn't fully understand why we practice stalls and recoveries, so managed to terrify him or her self. If the objective of the lesson per the syllabus is to go up and practice stalls, it's not going to be a successful lesson, and there will be very little praise from an instructor that does not understand fears and phobias.

Find an instructor that does understand fears and phobias, and the lesson will be completely different and a success, with lots of earned praise. Just think, instead of going up with a very real fear, being forced into it, perhaps being scared silly and having to have the instructor intervene to save your life, instead, the instructor briefs the flight beforehand. You learn that you might not have a complete understanding of the stall and its purpose, so having a fear of it is expected. You learn what you may not have understood about the stall and its practice, discovering that the maneuver is not at all violent if performed correctly, and, every time you land you do one. Then, having learned about the stall and filling in all the missing pieces, the instructor explains that even now, with the knowledge corrected, the physical reaction to a stall is still there, and will be until you've physically learned that a stall is not a violent out-of-control maneuver constantly stalking you ready to fling the plane into the ground with a big smoking crater. Thus, for the flight lesson, the instructor will have you approach the speed that bothers you, but still allows you to remain completely in control, not caring if that airspeed is 80 knots or 50, maybe not even into "slow flight" or hearing the stall horn. But that won't be the only part of the lesson. Perhaps some practice in trimming the aircraft to hands-off flight, where it stays on altitude without climbing or descending for ten seconds or so is in order. Or maybe some rudder coordination exercises are needed, so that the nose of the plane stays where you want, when you want. Or maybe there is a really good tri-tip sandwich at a neighboring airport, so on the way there you can practice slower-than-cruise flight, and on the way back, trim practice. And you'll be in control the entire time. You choose what to experience; you choose what to stay away from. The instructor won't be grabbing the controls out of your hands unless there is a true emergency, i.e. another aircraft on an immediate collision course, but that's what you're paying the instructor the big bucks for.

Say you do that flight, and only manage to feel comfortable around 80 knots. You try it a few times, stay in control, don't get overwhelmed, and recover back to cruise at 90 knots. There can only be praise for this. I'm truly humbled by my clients who, in spite of the fear, come out and try it anyways. Courage is acting in spite of fear. If there's no fear, you don't need courage. Just showing up is to be praised.

Back to the making mistakes, sorry to my clients that want it perfect the first time. This isn't grammar school. You have to make mistakes in order to learn. With some clients, I somewhat jokingly refer to needing one million mistakes before getting to the pilot's license, and thinking there is a list is number 2. Now I've taken making a mistake from a personal failure to a required completion item. Now what are they going to do? How can one self-punish for achieving a required item? They now have to give themselves praise for correcting the mistake as well as for making it in the first place.

The flight instructor is a practical psychologist and must be an observer of character to best know how to approach the student, to get that student over their stuff as needed, to best accomplish the training goal. The instructor can not operate in a vacuum, so if their method is not working, sit down and have a chat. Share your concerns and listen to what the instructor has to say. Sadly, some instructors are not themselves capable of receiving criticism, and might get defensive or angry about such a conversation. With those, finding another instructor is a must. With others, perhaps they can not adapt to your needs, thus you might need to find another instructor. When it is personality that conflicts, the instructor most likely already has another instructor in mind for you to try. Sometimes you may only need a flight or two with another instructor, and can finish with your primary one. This is one of the reasons part 141 schools require stage checks to be flown with a different instructor.

Perhaps a sit down chat is in order, and maybe you might want to bring some technology into your training flights. There’s a cockpit video camera that can record the flight as well as the audio. Record the flight, then sit down with the instructor and review it afterwards. You're now in a safe, calm, classroom environment where you have time to think, ask questions, get some coffee, and don't have to worry about rocks, trees, other airplanes, ATC, or numerous other distractions. You can also review the praise you missed...

Thoughts anyone?